Shang dynasty , Wade-Giles romanization Shang , the first recorded Chinese dynasty for which there is both documentary and archaeological evidence. The Shang dynasty was the reputed successor to the quasi-legendary first dynasty, the Xia c. The latter part of the Shang dynasty, from the reign of the Pangeng emperor onward i. Shang China was centred in the North China Plain and extended as far north as modern Shandong and Hebei provinces and westward through present-day Henan province. The kings of the Shang are believed to have occupied several capitals one after another, one of them possibly at modern Zhengzhou , where there are rich archaeological finds, but they settled at Anyang in the 14th century bce. The king appointed local governors, and there was an established class of nobles as well as the masses, whose chief labour was in agriculture. The king issued pronouncements as to when to plant crops, and the society had a highly developed calendar system with a day year of 12 months of 30 days each. Musical instruments had evidently come down from the Xia or whatever society preceded the Shang, for the early Shang instruments were well developed and included a clay ocarina , tuned chimes of stone, and bells and drums of bronze.
Although modern-day China uses the Gregorian calendar , the traditional Chinese calendar governs holidays—such as the Chinese New Year and Lantern Festival —in both China and in overseas Chinese communities. It also gives the traditional Chinese nomenclature of dates within a year, which people use for selecting auspicious days for weddings , funerals, moving, or starting a business. The evening state-run news program Xinwen Lianbo in the P. Like Chinese characters , variants of this calendar are used in different parts of the East Asian cultural sphere.
Korea, Vietnam, and the Ryukyu Islands adopted the calendar, and it evolved into Korean , Vietnamese , and Ryukyuan calendars.
The influence of individualist values and the changing cultural norms The Chinese character for “xiao” can visually be interpreted as a child.
The Chinese language is the oldest written language in the world with at least six thousand years of history. The Chinese written language uses single distinctive symbols, or characters, to represent each word of the vocabulary. The vast majority of characters are written versions of spoken sounds that have meaning. A large dictionary usually contains 40, characters. Although the written system has been altered over time due to revolutions and political changes, the principles of the language along with the symbols and characters have remained basically the same.
Although many Chinese dialects exist, the written language is a common form of communication. Even though people are not able to verbally communicate in different provinces, they are able to understand each other in writing. However, the written language can be further subdivided into three forms: simplified, traditional, and informal slang or phonetic. Primarily Chinese in China uses simplified characters. It is taught in Mandarin-Chinese classes internationally as well. These characters are simpler, i.
Because there are not as many readers of this paper in the United States, the paper is not commonly carried in local Chinese stores.
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At different times in Chinese history, Confucius trad. This means that the philosophy of Confucius is historically underdetermined, and it is possible to trace multiple sets of coherent doctrines back to the early period, each grounded in different sets of classical sources and schools of interpretation linked to his name. After introducing key texts and interpreters, then, this entry explores three principal interconnected areas of concern: a psychology of ritual that describes how ideal social forms regulate individuals, an ethics rooted in the cultivation of a set of personal virtues, and a theory of society and politics based on normative views of the family and the state.
Because of the wide range of texts and traditions identified with him, choices about which version of Confucius is authoritative have changed over time, reflecting particular political and social priorities. The portrait of Confucius as philosopher is, in part, the product of a series of modern cross-cultural interactions. In Imperial China, Confucius was identified with interpretations of the classics and moral guidelines for administrators, and therefore also with training the scholar-officials that populated the bureaucracy.
In China, any sign that distinguishes the goods of a natural person, legal entity What rules govern the representation of the mark in the application? The trademark registration formally come into effect on the date when the What words or symbols can be used to indicate trademark use or registration?
When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This handout provides examples and information on writing in English for both domestic and international audiences doing business in China. It includes information on letters and memos, as well as important stylistic considerations.
While many of the genres and conventions of business writing in English are found everywhere, some are unique to particular contexts, and may prove challenging to those attempting to do business in those contexts. Being able to create appropriate formal and informal written business documents in these contexts not only contributes to a more efficient business enterprise, but also enables the writer to be seen as knowledgeable and culturally sensitive. This handout is designed to provide basic information on writing effectively in English for business audiences in the People’s Republic of China.
While the information in the handout is designed from the perspective of familiarity with the norms of North American business writing , it will also be helpful as a guide for anyone who is unfamiliar with business writing in China, including students from China. The information included below is meant to serve as a quick and ready reference sheet on Chinese business writing.
The purposes of business letters and memos in China parallel the purposes they serve in North American businesses: introducing a candidate for employment, requesting information, making complaints, disseminating information to an office, proposing projects, making sales, and so on. I am writing to provide more information on the sales presentation taking place on Friday, June
Newlyweds in the s In the old days, marriages and weddings were worked out by families, following rules laid out by ancient traditions. In the Communist era, these details were often worked out by neighborhood councils and work units. These days, families have reasserted their control but individuals getting married probably have more say in marriage matters than they ever had before. According to a Chinese legend, couples destined to marry have invisible red strings, connecting them, tied around their ankles when they are young children.
As they grow older the strings gets shorter and shorter until it is time for them to wed. Nothing can severe the strings “not distance, changing circumstances, or love.
An invitation letter issued by a relevant entity or individual in China. The invitation should contain: (1) Information on the applicant (full name, gender, date of.
One completed China Visa Application Form attached with a recently-taken passport photo 48mm x 33mm, bare-head, full face, and against a light background. If applying in a third country , you should also submit a proof of legal stay or residence permit, namely the original and photocopy of your valid visa, or certificates of stay, residence, employment or student status, or other valid certificates of legal staying provided by the relevant authorities of the third country.
What documents are needed for China visa application? Depending on the visa type you are applying for, additional documentation must be submitted. Generally, the invitation letter in the form of fax, photocopy or computer printout is acceptable, but the consular officer may require the original of the invitation letter when necessary. Answers App. Tourist Visa L. Business Visa M.
Noncommercial Visit Visa F. Student Visa X.
The Chinese with Listening Subject Test is a great way to demonstrate your knowledge of written and spoken Mandarin. Whether you learned the language in a high school class or outside of school, this test can help you highlight your achievements and interest in the Chinese language. Start practicing.
In “几几年” do I need to regard the tone change rule and make it jí jǐ? I am not sure about it because it’s not two syllables of one word but two separated words with.
In Chinese grammar de particles are an important topic to learn. In fact, the only similarity is that each is pronounced de. However, they are often grouped together in textbooks and classes, so it’s helpful for many students to have a clear summary like the one below. By number, it’s the most common character in Chinese texts.
Let’s have a look at some basic examples:. It’s important to note, though, that Chinese uses possession far more than English. For example:. This de particle probably isn’t used quite as much as the other two, but it tends to be a bit easier for English speakers to understand. That is, it marks adverbs, or converts adjectives into adverbs.
Trademark registration and use in China
China is one of the leading countries in terms of technological advancements. Despite this, it has preserved its ancient culture like any other Asian country. In this conservative country that values customs and traditions above all else, casually dating can go against their dating norms.
According to Chinese legend ur induction into the Chinese spoken it was with their simple shells dating as far back as the fifteenth phonetic spelling, to us the by the same symbols, 1 – 2 – 3. orideas according to certain prescribed rules.
Calligraphy, the writing of characters, is an art which has developed over many centuries in China. This unit introduces students to this ancient art through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. As each character is made up by a series of single brushstrokes, the student will soon learn to recognize these as components of the completed character and the written Chinese language will become much less forbidding.
The exercises in this unit also encourage the students to experience the rhythm and sense of design in Chinese writing, thereby bringing an aesthetic dimension to their understanding of the Chinese language. The word “calligraphy” is originally a Greek word meaning “beautiful writing. In China, however, calligraphy is regarded as an art from in itself and is admired and displayed in museums just as paintings are. Moreover, calligraphy is often used to decorate articles of everyday use.
For instance, when you go to a Chinese restaurant you may notice that the dishes are painted with characters as well as with colorful pictures. Even on the ordinary, everyday level of life, beautiful writing is appreciated. Oracle Inscriptions The earliest known examples of Chinese writing are inscriptions on animal bones and tortoise shells dating from the 13th century B.
These inscriptions were the records of divinations made by heating the bones or shells over a fire until cracks appeared on them. Predictions were read form the pattern of the cracks and recorded directly on the bone or shell.